In order to improve the surveillance systems on AMR, the European Commission asked EFSA to revise the existing technical specifications on the monitoring of AMR and issue scientific reports, as it has been laid by the Commission Implementing Decision 2013/652/EU39 (which entered into force on 1 January 2014). The legislation ensures harmonised monitoring systems in Europe, fosters comparability between the Member States and between the human and veterinary sectors and facilitates the monitoring of patterns of multi-drug resistance in the EU.
In September 2009, EMA published a joint report together with ECDC and the international network ReAct - Action on Antibiotic Resistance. This report highlights the gap between infections due to resistant bacteria and the development of new antibiotics.
Audits and information gathering activities are another important part of EU's work on tackling AMR. The Commission carries out regular audits to verify the execution of the mandatory monitoring of AMR in animals. The Commission also performs fact-finding missions on the prudent use of antibiotics in animals and carries out country visits on One Health aspects concerning AMR (jointly with ECDC). Analysis of the policies and measures to address AMR in non-EU countries is yet another activity executed by the Commission.
The outcomes of these actions are available at the overview reports and at the individual reports for the countries concerned. (NB: to facilitate the identification of the relevant overview and individual reports, we recommend inserting the term ‘AMR’ when using the Search engine).
The latest joint reports by EFSA, EMA and ECDC are the following:
- October 2017 - these 3 agencies established a set of indicators to help EU countries assess their progress in reducing the use of antimicrobials.
- June 2021 - Third joint inter-agency report on integrated analysis of antimicrobial agent consumption and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals in the EU/EEA (JIACRA III) presented new data on antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance, reflecting improved surveillance across Europe. The report confirms the link between antibiotic consumption and antibiotic resistance in both humans and food-producing animals.